Tory Madden is a clinical physiotherapist and researcher with a longstanding interest in human health, particularly in the processes that underlie persistent pain and learning. She works at the University of Cape Town as a senior lecturer in the Department of Anaesthesia and Perioperative Medicine and the Neuroscience Institute and is involved in Groote Schuur Hospital’s interdisciplinary Chronic Pain Clinic. She holds a ‘Y’ scientist rating from the South African National Research Foundation and currently receives funding from the US National Institutes of Health, through a K43 Emerging Global Leader award. She aims to focus her research on identifying contributors to persistent pain that can be targeted therapeutically to decrease and prevent persistent pain.
PhD, University of South Australia
BSc (Physiotherapy), University of Cape Town
Research awards and funding
NIH (Fogarty International Center) K43 Emerging Global Leader Career Development Award
Innovation Postdoctoral Fellowship award, National Research Foundation, South Africa (not taken up)
National Research Foundation (South Africa) scientist rating (Y2)
IASP developing-developed countries collaborative research grant (travel funds)
CSIR National Laser Centre research grant (competitively awarded funding to rent laser equipment from the national pool). Role: co-investigator; lead grant-writer
International Collaborative Research Projects award, University of Cape Town. Role: co-investigator; lead grant-writer.
Ian Davey Research Thesis Prize (awarded to an excellent thesis at the University of South Australia that is noted for quality and likely to have a significant impact on communities beyond the University)
Thesis of the Year prize, Division of Health Sciences, University of South Australia
Financial aid awards from the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) to attend the World Congress on Pain
Innovation Postdoctoral Fellowship award, National Research Foundation, South Africa
University of South Australia completion scholarship
Best free paper presentation, Pain South Africa Congress
Merit Recipient – South Australian iAwards for ICT innovation (Research and Development Category)
University of South Australia Travel Award for research trip to Belgium in 2015
Scholarship to attend the World Congress on Pain from IASP’s Pain, Mind and Movement SIG
South African Society of Physiotherapy scholarships to attend World Congress on Pain
University of South Australia conference scholarship
Oppenheimer Memorial Trust Award for Postgraduate Study
South African Society of Physiotherapy conference scholarships
Research presentation award, South African Society of Physiotherapy Congress
Impact: peer-reviewed publications (most recent first)
Madden, V.J., Bedwell, G.J., Chikezie, P.C., Rice, A.S.C., Kamerman, P.R. “A systematic review of experimental methods to manipulate secondary hyperalgesia in humans: protocol.” 2019. Systematic Reviews 8:208. doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/s13643-019-1120-7.
Limakatso, K., Madden, V.J., Manie, S., Parker, R. “The effectiveness of graded motor imagery for reducing phantom limb pain in amputees: A randomised controlled trial.” In press at Physiotherapy. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physio.2019.06.009.
Alaiti, R.K., Harvie, D.S., Gasparin, J.T., de Sousa, M.F., Pompeu, J.E., Madden, V.J., Hunziker, M.H.L., da Costa, M.F. “Distorted distance perception to reachable points in people with chronic shoulder pain.” 2019. Musculoskeletal Science and Practice. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msksp.2019.04.015.
Talbot, K., Madden V.J., Jones, S., Moseley, G.L. “Are the sensory and affective components of pain differentially modifiable dimensions or inseparable aspects of a unitary experience? A systematic review.” In press at the British Journal of Anaesthesia. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bja.2019.03.033.
Chalmers, K.J. and Madden, V.J. (dual first authorship) “Shifting beliefs across society would lay the foundation for truly biopsychosocial treatment of pain.” 2019. Journal of Physiotherapy 65: 121-122. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jphys.2019.04.001.
Madden, V.J., Kamerman, P., Bellan, V., Catley, M.J., Russek, L., Camfferman, D., Moseley, G.L. “Was that painful or non-painful? The Sensation and Pain Rating Scale (SPARS) performs well in the experimental context.” 2019. J Pain 20(4):472.e1-472.e12. doi: 10.1016/j.jpain.2018.10.006.
Traxler, J., Madden, V.J., Moseley, G.L., Vlaeyen, J.W.S. “Modulating pain thresholds through classical conditioning.” 2019. PeerJ 8;7:e6486. doi: 10.7717/peerj.6486.
Limakatso, K., Bedwell, G.J., Madden, V.J., Parker, R. “The prevalence of phantom limb pain and associated risk factors in people with amputations: A systematic review protocol.” 2019. Systematic Reviews 8(17). doi: 10.1186/s13643-018-0938-8.
Zaman, J., Madden, V.J., Iven, J., Wiech, K., Weltens, N., Giao Ly, H., Vlaeyen, J.W.S., Van Oudenhove, L. and Van Diest, I. “Biased intensity judgements of visceral sensations after fear learning to visceral stimuli: a drift diffusion approach.” 2017. J Pain, May 19. doi: 10.1016/j.jpain.2017.04.011.
Madden, V.J., Bellan, V., Russek, L.N., Camfferman, D., Vlaeyen, J.W.S. and Moseley, G.L. “Pain by association? Experimental modulation of human pain thresholds using classical conditioning.” 2016. J Pain 17(10):1105-1115. doi: 10.1016/j.jpain.2016.06.012
Van Nugteren, J.A., Parker, R., Madden, V.J. “Understanding persistent postoperative pain in South Africa.” 2016. South African Journal of Anaesthesia and Analgesia 22(4): 4.
Chalmers, K.J., Madden, V.J., Hutchinson, M.R. and Moseley, G.L. “Local and Systemic Inflammation in Localized, Provoked Vestibulodynia: A Systematic Review.” 2016. Obstetrics & Gynecology 128(2):337-347. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000001510.
Madden, V.J., Russek, L.N., Harvie. D.S., Vlaeyen, J.W.S. and Moseley, G.L. “Classical Conditioning Fails to Elicit Allodynia in an Experimental Study with Healthy Humans.” 2017. Pain Medicine 18(7):1314-1325. doi: 10.1093/pm/pnw221.
Madden, V.J., Catley, M.J., Grabherr, L., Mazzola, F., Shohag, M. and Moseley, G.L. “The effect of repeated laser stimuli to ink-marked skin on skin temperature – recommendations for a safe experimental protocol in humans.” 2016. PeerJ 4; e1577. doi: 10.7717/peerj.1577.
Madden, V.J., Harvie, D.S., Parker, R., Vlaeyen, J.W.S., Moseley, G.L. and Stanton, T.R. “Can pain or hyperalgesia be a classically conditioned response in humans? A systematic review and meta-analysis.” 2016. Pain Medicine 17(6): 1094-1111. doi: 10.1093/pm/pnv044.
Harvie, D.S., Madden, V.J., Meulders, A., Hillier, S.L., Broecker, M., Smith, R., Moseley, G.L. “Neck pain and proprioception revisited using the proprioception incongruence detection test.” 2016. Physical Therapy 96(5): 671-678. doi: 10.2522/ptj.20150210.
Harvie, D.S., Meulders, A., Madden, V.J., Hillier, S.L., Peto, D.K., Brinkworth, R., Moseley, G.L. “When touch predicts pain: predictive tactile cues modulate perceived intensity of painful stimulation independent of expectancy.” 2016. Scandinavian Journal of Pain 11:11-18. doi: 10.1016/j.sjpain.2015.09.007.
Madden, V.J. and Moseley, G.L. “Do clinicians think that pain can be a classically conditioned response to a non-noxious stimulus?” 2016. Manual Therapy 22:165-173. doi: 10.1016/j.math.2015.12.003.
Harvie, D.S., Broecker, M., Smith, R.T., Meulders, A., Madden, V.J., Moseley, G.L. “Bogus visual feedback alters onset of movement-evoked pain in people with neck pain.” 2015. Psychological Science, 26(4):385-392. doi: 10.1177/0956797614563339.
Parker, R & Madden, V.J. “Ultrasound versus sham ultrasound for experimentally induced Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness: a double-blind controlled trial.” 2014. South African Journal of Sports Medicine 26(4):99-103.
Madden, V.J., O’Sullivan, P.B., Fisher, J., Malambule, B. “‘Our training left us unprepared’ – Two physiotherapists’ reflections on working with women with low back pain in a rural Zulu community in South Africa.” Journal of Community and Health Sciences, September 2013.
Parker, R., Burgess, S., Dubaniewicz, D., Gouws, L-J., Krone, J., Madden, V., Nortje, C. & Parsons, C. “Patient satisfaction following participation in a pilot chronic pain management programme in Cape Town, South Africa.” 2009. South African Journal of Physiotherapy 65(1).
Impact: selected peer-reviewed conference posters
Madden V.J., Bedwell, G., Moseley, G.L., Vlaeyen, J.W.S. “Relative Intensity Judgements: A Novel Paradigm For Investigating Classically Conditioned Bias.” Poster, 17th World Congress on Pain, Boston, USA, September 2018.
Madden V.J., Kamerman, P., Bellan, V., Catley, M.J., Russek, L.N., Camffermann, D., Moseley, G.L. “The stimulus-response characteristics of the Sensation and Pain Rating Scale (SPARS) for rating non-painful and painful experiences.” Poster, Australia and New Zealand Pain Societies’ Annual Scientific Meeting, Sydney, Australia, April 2018.
Madden V.J., Catley, M.J., Bellan, V., Russek, L.N., Camffermann, D., Moseley, G.L. “The FESTNRS – a new numerical rating scale to assess non-painful and painful experiences in humans.” Poster, 16th World Congress on Pain, Yokohama, Japan, October 2016.
Madden, V.J., Russek, L.N., Harvie, D.S., Vlaeyen, J.W., Moseley, G.L. “Can classical conditioning elicit allodynia responses in healthy humans?” Poster, European Meeting on Human Fear Conditioning, Bochum, Germany, May 2015.
Madden, V.J, Harvie, D.S., Stanton, T.S., Parker, R., Vlaeyen, J.W., Moseley, G.L. “Can pain or hyperalgesia be a classically conditioned response? A systematic review and meta-analysis.” Poster, 15th World Congress on Pain, Buenos Aires, October 2014, and PainAdelaide 4th annual scientific meeting, March 2015.
Madden, V.J., Catley, M., Grabherr, L., Mazzola, F., Shohag, M., Moseley, G.L. “Perceptual habituation and skin temperature stability with repeated noxious laser stimuli.” Poster, 15th World Congress on Pain, Buenos Aires, October 2014, and and PainAdelaide 4th annual scientific meeting, March 2015.
Bowering, K.J, Madden, V.J., Moseley, G.L., Evans, S.F. “What are the characteristics of the inflammatory components of PVD? A systematic review.” Poster, 15th World Congress on Pain, Buenos Aires, October 2014, and PainAdelaide 4th annual scientific meeting, March 2015.
Harvie, D.S., Broecker, M., Smith, R.T., Meulders, A., Madden, V.J., Moseley, G.L. “Bogus visual feedback alters movement-evoked pain onset in people with neck pain.” Poster, 15th World Congress on Pain, Buenos Aires, October 2014, and PainAdelaide 4th annual scientific meeting, March 2015.
Impact: community engagement and science communication
Participated in the first Expert Meeting on Avoidance Behaviour, Pain and Fear (by invitation; Leuven, Belgium)
Pain Research Forum Correspondent for the World Congress on Pain. This was a science communication training programme with an international competitive application process.
Associate director: Train Pain Academy. This is a non-profit organisation that provides training to healthcare clinicians to improve understanding and clinical management of pain.
Executive Board member: Pain, Mind and Movement Special Interest Group (IASP)
Attended and presented at 17th World Congress on Pain (International Assoc. for the Study of Pain)
Secretary on the Executive Board of the Pain, Mind and Movement Special Interest Group (IASP)
Associate editor, BodyinMind.org.
Coordinator of University of Cape Town Pain Unit’s lunchtime lecture series
Participated in the Pain Revolution Australia (painrevolution.org), forming part of the rider support team, giving evening seminars on pain to members of the public and health professionals, and assisting on the ‘Brain Bus’ mobile pain education facility.
Organised and hosted the first University of Cape Town Pain Symposium with three international speakers. This event was the first of its kind, was open to the public and was attended by over 100 people.
Attended and presented a focused symposium at World Confederation for Physical Therapy congress
Attended and presented at 16th World Congress on Pain (International Assoc. for the Study of Pain)
Attended NeupSIG Congress, Nice, France.
Attended and presented at 15th World Congress on Pain (International Assoc. for the Study of Pain)
Coordinator of the Body in Mind research group’s “Microbytes” visiting lecture series
Attended PainAdelaide meetings
Branch committee member: Pain Management Physiotherapy Group of South Africa
Attended PainSA Congresses
Attended Pan-African Pain Congress (International Association for the Study of Pain)
Impact: influencing the end user – clinicians and clinical practice
Madden, V.J., Kamerman, P.R. “Open Science: Sharing Is Caring”. Hosted on Pain Research Forum, a website run by the International Association for the Study of Pain, aimed at researchers. (August 2019) (https://www.painresearchforum.org/forums/discussion/123134-open-science-sharing-caring)
Madden, V.J., Kamerman, P.R., Catley, M.J., Bellan, V., Russek, L.N., Camfferman, D., Moseley, G.L. “Rethinking pain threshold as a zone of uncertainty”. Pre-print on bioRxiv.521302, 2019. doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/521302. Submitted for peer review.
Madden V.J. “Exercise Can Make Pain Better”. Hosted on Relief News, a website run by the International Association for the Study of Pain, aimed at the lay public. (February 2019)(https://relief.news/exercise-can-make-pain-better/)
Madden, V.J. “I May Be a Senior Scientist, But I Feel Like a Postdoc in the Art World”: A Podcast With Kathleen Sluka. Hosted on Pain Research Forum, a website run by the International Association for the Study of Pain, aimed at researchers. (October 2018)(https://tinyurl.com/y65rzmqy)
BodyinMind website: www.bodyinmind.org. This site has the widest and most influential reach of any web or social media presence in the clinical pain sciences.
Madden, V. “How can we assess the intensity of non-painful events as well as painful events?” (July 2019)
Madden, V. “Changing pain thresholds with classical conditioning” (March 2017)
Madden, V. “Small fibre neuropathy in Fibromyalgia: cause or consequence?” (March 2016)
Madden, V. “Can pain be a classically conditioned response?” (February 2016)
Madden, V. “Placebo vs nocebo: same-same or different?” (February 2016)
Madden, V. “Michael’s marvellous microglia in mice and (not just) men talk at NeuPSIG 2015, Nice.” (October 2015)
Madden, V. “Role of psychosocial factors in the development of multisite pain.” (February 2015)(2030 views)
Madden, V. “What to call the amplification of nociceptive signals in the CNS that contribute to widespread pain?” (January 2015)(3923 views)
Madden, V. “World Congress on Pain comes to you. 3: Learning Pain.” (December 2014)(1354 views)
Madden, V. “A clash of beliefs: why our Western approach to pain didn’t work in a rural Zulu community.” (October 2014) (1782 views)
Madden, V. “But they walked, hopped and jumped on it!” (July 2014). This post had 1390 page views, and holds the record for over-5-minute views (the average for BodyinMind is approximately 2 minutes).
Madden, V. “Dying values? Does pain matter?” (March 2014). This post had 634 views.
Madden, V. “Potluck? Might Cannabis reduce neuropathic pain?” (December 2013). This post had 1081 views.
Invited lecture on Psychoneuroimmunology, and invited workshop on Pain Physiology (Pain South Africa Congress 2019)
Invited plenary lecture: Mechanisms of pain: evidence for emotional and contextual influences (Pain South Africa Congress 2018)
Workshop: Pain physiology refresher course (Pain South Africa Congress 2018)
Pain by Association? The classical conditioning framework for pain (PainCloud convention, Oslo, Norway)
When nociception is not enough: what we know and what we don’t (Pain South Africa Congress 2017)
Workshop: Clinical assessment and reasoning for complex pain (Pain South Africa Congress 2017)
Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: an update (Perioperative Pain Symposium, University of Cape Town)
Graded motor imagery for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (Pain South Africa / Pain, Mind and Movement SIG congress 2015, South Africa)
Can pain be a classically conditioned response? (PainAdelaide 4th annual scientific meeting, Australia)
Rehabilitating patients after upper limb amputation (South African Society for Surgery of the Hand’s Congress and Refresher Course, Bloemfontein, South Africa)
Relative Intensity Judgements: A Novel Paradigm For Investigating Classically Conditioned Bias (Presentation at Satellite Symposium to the 17th World Congress on Pain)
“Learning of fear; learning of pain?” In the focused symposium entitled “Pain – subjective experience” (World Confederation for Physical Therapy congress, Cape Town)
The effect of bodily Illusions on pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Five-minute platform presentation on behalf of Eva Bosch, Dr Valeria Bellan, Prof Lorimer Moseley and Dr Tasha Stanton (World Confederation for Physical Therapy congress, Cape Town).
The FESTNRS – a new numerical rating scale to assess non-painful and painful experiences in humans (Presentation at business meeting of IASP’s Pain’s “Pain, Mind and Movement” Special Interest Group)
Free paper session at PainSA Congress 2016
Free paper session at PainSA/Pain, Mind and Movement Congress 2015
Can pain or hyperalgesia be a classically conditioned response? A systematic review and meta-analysis (Presentation at business meeting of IASP’s “Pain, Mind and Movement” Special Interest Group)
Back pain in women: how do lifestyle and cultural factors affect physiotherapy in rural Northern KwaZulu-Natal? (South African Society of Physiotherapy Congress)
Preliminary results: clinical audit of the Chronic Pain Management Programme at Groote Schuur Hospital Physiotherapy Dept (Academic meeting for UCT Physiotherapy Dept’s 50th anniversary)
Senior lecturer: Postgraduate Diploma in Interdisciplinary Pain Management, University of Cape Town (includes convening 1 course and teaching on 5 courses)
Pain Interventions course for the Train Pain Academy
Medical Communication course for the Train Pain Academy
Ad-hoc teaching of clinicians and trainee specialists, University of Cape Town & Groote Schuur Hospital
Lecturer: 1st year Movement Science course at University of Cape Town
Certified instructor of Essential Pain Management educational intervention
Lecturer: 3rd year Pain Sciences course at University of South Australia
Individual tutor via the Indigenous Students Assistance Scheme, for physiotherapy students, University of South Australia
Private tutoring: Neuroanatomy and Human Anatomy courses, University of South Australia
Teaching assistant and practical examiner: 1st and 2nd year Physiotherapy Studies courses (massage, musculoskeletal and electrophysical agents), University of South Australia
Group tutor: 3rd year Movement Science for BSc (Physiotherapy), University of Cape Town
Supervision of research students
Co-supervisor: Kerwin Talbot, PhD candidate (completed) at University of South Australia. This candidate was awarded her doctoral degree with no corrections to her thesis.
Co-supervisor: Emma Fletcher, Honours student at the University of South Australia (distinction)
Co-supervisor: Juliane Traxler, Masters student (completed) at the University of Leuven (distinction)
Co-supervisor: Katleho Limakatso, Masters student at the University of Cape Town (completed)
Principal supervisor: Gillian Bedwell, Masters student at the University of Cape Town
Co-supervisor: Katleho Limakatso, PhD candidate at the University of Cape Town
Principal supervisor: Luyanduthando Mqadi, Honours student at the University of Cape Town
Principal supervisor: Retshepile Mokoena, Honours student at the University of Cape Town
Peer review involvement
I have reviewed by invitation for the journals Pain, Journal of Pain, Systematic Reviews, PLOS ONE, Manual Therapy and the International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice. I have reviewed grant applications for the Polish National Science Center and for the South African National Research Foundation.
1. Iterative design of novel experiments that bring together psychology, cognitive and physical manipulations, and neurophysiology.
2. Design and execution of systematic review and meta-analyses.
3. Deep understanding of the physiology underlying human nociception and pain (neurophysiology and other systems including endocrine influences, cognitive influences, immune influences, motor influences)
4. Experimental stimuli: laser stimulation, electrical stimulation, thermal stimulation, oesophageal distention, high-frequency electrical stimulation.
5. Psychophysiological measurements: electrodermal and acoustic startle responses, heart rate.
6. Quantitative sensory testing: I have been trained in the system used by the established German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain (DFNS), which includes testing for allodynia, hyperalgesia, thermal sensory limen, detection thresholds for mechanical and thermal stimulation, pain threshold to cold, heat and mechanical stimuli.
7. Data wrangling and analysis using R.
8. Open science practices including ethics, protocol development, public release of data and study pre-registration.
9. Skilled communication about pain research and science, including as an associate editor for the top online presence in the clinical pain sciences, winner of the SAASTA science communication competition, speaker in public seminars on the Pain Revolution, as well as university-level teaching in South Africa and Australia.
10. Collaborative research: I have active collaborations in South Africa, Australia, Brazil, Belgium, the Netherlands and the United States. I enjoy working in teams and I am most productive when working collaboratively.
Senior lecturer (University of Cape Town)
I teach on five courses and convene one course for the Postgraduate Diploma in Interdisciplinary Pain Management. I supervise postgraduate students and coordinate activities of the Pain Research Team, and I provide applied training for registrars who are training to specialise in Anaesthesiology. As part of the Perioperative Research Group, I support multicentre clinical trial activities.
Interdisciplinary team (Chronic Pain Clinic, Groote Schuur Hospital Cape Town)
I am part of this team which discusses complex chronic pain cases at the only interdisciplinary chronic pain clinic in the South African health care system.
Postdoctoral research fellow (University of Cape Town)
I ran a research programme on the links between learning and persistent pain, with a particular focus on clarifying how learning (and pain) are influenced by living in a threatening context. My funding came from an Innovation Postdoctoral Research Fellowship from the National Research Foundation.
Lecturer and Associate Director (since 2016): Train Pain Academy
This not-for-profit organisation provides training for health care clinicians who see people with pain. I teach for this organisation 2-3 times a year, in various places in Southern Africa. I serve as an associate director on the organisation’s board.
Teacher, examiner and lecturer; PhD candidate (University of South Australia)
Physiotherapist (Senior from 2011) (Private Physiotherapy Practice, including Cape Hand and Upper Limb Rehabilitation Unit, Cape Town)
My work here covered inpatient and outpatient settings. I took on a management role after working in this practice for only 18 months. I then had a full clinical load, but also supervised five physiotherapists who worked in the hospital’s wards and managed the weekend and after-hours rosters. In this role I motivated for better training opportunities, initiated improvements in the service we offered, and ensured that the physiotherapists I supervised were adequately supported.
Locum physiotherapist, including at Red Cross War Memorial Children’s Hospital, Cape Town
Community Service Physiotherapist (Mseleni Hospital, Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa)
I worked in all the hospital’s wards, its outpatient department and rural satellite clinics and provided home-based care. I also ran a monthly Orthotics and Prosthetics clinic with a visiting orthotist/prosthetist from the city. I initiated a peer-led Chronic Pain Management Programme, aiming to help chronic pain sufferers to learn to manage their lives. This involved recruiting and training volunteer facilitators and coordinating the programme at various satellite clinics.
Clinical audit of the Chronic Pain Management Programme run by Groote Schuur Hospital Physiotherapy Department (results published as above).